Tempering – Deconstruction and Reconstruction & Illustrated Tempering

This is actually a pair of articles. If you have read the first on that I wrote years ago, just skip on down the new new (2-6-08) illustrative section.
Deconstruction and Reconstruction

If you don’t happen to know, the AlChemist here is also an actual Chemist. For a while now, tempering has been bothering me. Or more to the point, the lack of clear scientific information. Sure, there is a bit out there about the different forms of cocoa butter, and how you are forming a particular form (type V) that gives chocolate its characteristic snap and gloss. But there is still a lot of mystique, intrigue and lack of true explanation.

Well, after quite a bit of reading and thinking, I think I have both an explanation as to what is actually happening, step by step, in the tempering process and why it works. So, without further delay, this is what I have worked out, pieced together and tested. It has lead to what I think is a new way to temper, and it involves a piece of equipment you most likely have if you are making chocolate from scratch – the Santha Wet Grinder. And it is very simple – I have tested it a number of times and so far, it seems just about fool proof as long has you have a reasonably accurate thermometer. But I will get to that at the end. On to a little theory.

You may have heard how cocoa butter forms into various “polymorphs”. Well, it is a simple enough term, but I can’t say it is very approachable. Poly means many, morph means shapes. So cocoa butter can take on many shapes – and we don’t mean in molds here. The molecular (there I go being unapproachable) form can take on many shapes. Think of a cocoa butter molecule as a long stick, not unlike a Lincoln log. There are LOTS of ways to stack them together and some are more stable and stronger than others. If you take the whole box and just dump them on the floor, you will get a very loose pile that is “soft”. If you push on it, it is going to move. That is like “polymorph I”. It is a very soft form of cocoa butter as there is very little structure to it. It is what you get if you just let the cocoa butter cool or cool it very quickly. I could go WAY into the analogy here, but suffice it to say, if you take your time, stack each log up and interlock it with the one below it, your whole structure is going to be strong and stable. That is “polymorph V” or tempered chocolate.

Now, I found the following chart. I really don’t want you to read it to carefully as in my opinion there is just too much information there. I want you to look at the melting points – that is the key to what we are going to do.

Polymorphs of Cocoa Butter melting point (�F/�C) comments
form I 63.1/17.3 Produced by rapid cooling of melt. Successive polymorphs are then obtained sequentially by heating at 0.5 �C/min.
form II 73.9/23.3 Produced by cooling melt at 2 �C/min or rapid cooling of melt followed by storing from several minutes up to one hour at 0 �C. This form is stable at 0 �C for up to 5 hours.
form III 77.9/25.5 Produced by solidification of melt at 5-10 �C or transformation of form II by storing at 5-10 �C.
form IV 81.1/27.3 Produced by solidification of melt at 16-21 �C or transformation of form III by storing at 16-21 �C.
form V 92.8/33.8 Produced by tempering (cooling then reheating slightly while mixing). The most desirable form with good gloss, texture, and “snap”.
form VI 97.7/36.3 The transformation of form V after spending 4 months at room temperature. Leads to the white, dusty appearance of “bloomed” chocolate.

What it all comes down to is that if you let cocoa butter just slowly and naturally cool, you are going to get a mixture of types I-V (no VI as it takes months). The slower you go, the more type V you are going to get as the others can’t really form if the mixture is too hot – they just “melt”. So at 30 C, about all that is going to form is type V. Now, notice I say “about”. Those numbers are great in theory, but in practice, a little of all of them form at all temperatures – it is just one of those crystallization/equilibration theory “things” that I took 3 months in 2nd year Organic Chemistry to really study and understand.

So, if we take some melted chocolate (untempered – no structure at all), and let it cool slowly, type V “crystals” will start to form as it cools, then IV, then III, then II, then I. What have we gained – all we have is this mass of soft chocolate with all the forms. Yes and no. What we have is a soft mass with quite a lot of type V crystals “contaminated” by the other forms. What happens if we heat this back up to 32 C? All the forms except type V melt and we are left with what is effectively type V “seed” chocolate. If you then add this to a batch of untempered chocolate that is UNDER 92.8F/33.8 C (the melting point of type V), the cocoa butter present will start to form around the seed crystals very nicely and preferentially give you 90+% type V cocoa butter. There WILL be a little of the other forms present (that whole crystallization/equilibration theory “thing”) but the majority will be type V and you will have tempered chocolate.

Now, I know in “classic” tempering you stir, and scrape, and sheer and yadda, yadda, yadda. If I did that in my Organic Chemistry lab while forming crystals I would have failed. It works sometimes, but mostly it is unpredictable (hrm, tempering unpredictable, naaaa). What I always learned was to form a seed crystal, set your conditions correctly, then TAKE YOUR HANDS OFF. So many people wanted to “help” the crystals form – all they did was break them and make a mess. So, based on all of that, this is what I have developed for tempering with your Santha. It looks more complicated than it is – I like to give plenty of detail.

The AlChemist approach to Tempering

  1. Refine your chocolate to the level you desire. Verify the temperature is above 110 F and remove anywhere from 1/4 -1/3 of the chocolate. (note, chocolate tends to equilibrate at this temperature when refining in the Santha)
  2. Place the chocolate on a plastic wrap covered plate, cover the plate and put it in the oven or other semi-insulated place to slowing cool. (you are forming all the crystal forms here, with an advantage to the type V by cooling slowly).
  3. Let the seed chocolate set up a few hours. It will be quite soft as it is “contaminated” by type I-IV crystals. Don’t touch it, stir it or bother it – it knows what it is doing.
  4. Once it is solid and you are ready to temper and mold up, remove the seed chocolate and chop it up into small finger nail sized pieces.
  5. Verify the chocolate in the Santha is between 90-95 F. If colder, just run it a few minutes and it will heat up. If hotter, let it cool.
  6. Add it to the rest of your chocolate in the Santha, turn it on a minute or so to mix it, then turn it off so the seed chocolate can melt. This is the advantage of the Santha. It will distribute the seed chocolate very well.
  7. Turn the Santha back on and verify the temperature of the chocolate once it is all homogeneous. You want it technically anywhere over the melting point of type IV (81.1 F) and under the melting point of type V (92.8 F) . Practically, assuming your thermometer is not perfect, a goal of 88-90 F is nice. If it is a little too cool, turn the Santha on a little to heat it up. It really should not be too warm since you are adding room temperature seed chocolate to chocolate you have verified to be no warmer than 95 F.
  8. After everything is homogeneous, it is your choice how to withdrawn your chocolate. I prefer to turn the Santha off, withdraw a syringe (soon to be offered for sale) of chocolate, turn it back on, and fill my molds. Then repeat – off – fill – on – dispense. During this procedure I take off the nylon nut so the chocolate is mixing but not heating (no friction means no heat).

That is all there is to it. Finally a couple quick molding notes.

  1. Polish your molds with a clean dry towel.
  2. I found no advantage to rubbing with cocoa butter – it did not help nor harm the final release or gloss.
  3. Let the chocolate set up at room temperature – give the Type V crystals plenty of time to form. If you force cool, you run the risk of forming other forms and softening your chocolate.
  4. After the chocolate is fully set up, put them in the refrigerator 1/2 hour or longer, then unmold immediately. This really helps the chocolate release from the molds effortlessly by contracting it just a little.
Illustrated Tempering

Day in and day out, I try and make chocolate making at home approachable. And the one subject that always comes up is tempering. I have Deconstructed it (above), explained it this way and that way, and now I want to try to illustrate what is going on.

Please keep in mind, I have no clue what the various forms (Type I-V) actually look like at a molecular level or what form of crystal structure they actually take. The shapes (and colors) are for demonstration purposes only as a way to “show” what is going on when you temper your chocolate. Let’s start with the legend so we all know what we are viewing.

The goal in tempering is to take either melted “formless” chocolate or untempered chocolate and make it into tempered chocolate, or chocolate with mostly Type V (pretty isn’t it?) cocoa butter crystals.


That’s the goal. How do we get there? We temper it of course, and the first step in tempering is to heat the chocolate over 100 F/ 37 C to destroy any and all crystal structure. A tabula rasa as it were.


OK, are you with me so far? You heat the chocolate to destroy the cocoa butter crystals and then cool it to form all the types of crystals. This is the main part of tempering. The stirring or working on a marble slab or just waiting for it to cool in a bowl. This is what is happening when it cools.

Next you generally either add warm, reserved chocolate back to the cool chocolate to raise the temperature or if you are bowl tempering, you raise the entire contents. Why? Look and see. As you raise the temperature, each type of cocoa butter starts to “melt”.


Now, most of the time you would never be at 63 F – it would be a hard block. Unless of course you follow my Deconstructed method where I let a portion of the chocolate completely set up overnight. But again, this is to demonstrate a point. So, we have heated the chocolate up past 63 F and look at that – all the type I crystals are gone. Just like magic (or maybe alchemy). Now we raise the temperature a bit more.

And a bit more…

t-3.JPG And a bit more heat still…


Being careful to not get the chocolate too hot. If we were to add more heat still and get over the limit they always warn you about (around 88 F), the type V would melt and we would be right back at the beginning. But that is worth pointing out – you would not actually be hurting anything. It would simply look like that formless chocolate. And also, as the note under the illustration says, we now have seeded chocolate. We have made it. All seeded chocolate is is formless chocolate (straight lines) with Type V (purple hexagons) crystals in it. Whether we make it as above or “seed” some formless chocolate with type V crystals (by adding some tempered chocolate to it {at the “proper” [read below 92 F/32 C, 88 F/30 C to be safe] temperature}) to it, the chocolate doesn’t know the difference. In both cases we now have a form (the little seeds of type V) for the rest of the cocoa butter to form around as we cool the chocolate in its molds.



That’s it. That’s tempering. That’s what’s up with getting the chocolate hot (destroying all the crystals/shapes), cooling it down (creating all types I-V) and heating it a little back up (destroying all but type V).

One other disclaimer here. This is the “perfect” chocolate, more really, pure cocoa butter. Once you start adding other things (cocoa solids, milk, sugar, etc) the temperature ranges and melting points start to drop. This is why we only go to 88 F/31 C for dark chocolate, and even lower (84 F/ 30 C) for milk chocolate.


51 Responses to “Tempering – Deconstruction and Reconstruction & Illustrated Tempering”

  1. Absolutely amazing description of the tempering process and I finally understand it ALLLLLLLL.

    You must be a Teacher as well as a Chemist,
    (sorry ALchemist)

    I travel to Guatemala frequently and can’t wait to try it out with fresh beans.

    Thank you!


  2. Thank you for your effort.

  3. You are quite welcome.

    Thank you both and everyone else who has written to say they now “get” tempering.

  4. Beautiful. It’s like glasses crystals. :o))

    São Paulo – Brazil

  5. Beautiful. It’s like crystals of glass…

    Tell me how you have found your “following chart” (the chart where the types I, II, III, IV, V, VI are described). Did it droped from the sky?

  6. Bob,

    I found the reference in a chocolate making textbook. I would be happy to look it up if you like. Definitely not from the sky.

  7. I am a little confused. After attempting tempering (and failing), I need some help. I have only tried the method you showed with the spatula, and I could not get it to work correctly. But in this method, you mention the “seed” chocolate. Which one is the seed?

    Just to get this straight:

    1) Take 1/3 refined from the Santha
    2) Put it in the oven and let it solidify (I’m guessing I don’t turn the oven on?) (meanwhile, the Santha 2/3 just sits there?)
    3) Take out the oven chocolate (seed?) and chop it into bits
    4) Add it to Santha and turn on for one minute
    5) Pay close attention to the temp requirements (which I understand)
    5) Put it in a mold.

    Is this correct?

    Thanks for all your hard work. You should write a book.



  9. I’m doing my science fair project on this concept and I wanted to say thanks. The information, especially the diagrams, really helped me to understand the process thoroughly.

    newfoundland canada.

  10. Great!

  11. Thanks for the illustrations. I have not yet found another site that explains tempering with illustrations. I understand your explanation of crystal formation, but what I still don’t understand, however, is this: if untempered chocolate is just chocolate with all the different crystal types, why does one have to melt all the crystals, cool it down to let (all) the different types form again, then reheat it until all but Type V melt? Why not just heat the untempered chocolate to 88 degrees and then let the unformed chocolate crystallize around the Type V crystals that are left (without the cooling and reheating)?

  12. Alfreda,

    The basic answer is that you don’t have to melt it all in a perfect world. I have done what you suggest (it is very similar to the Santha tempering) and IF you have a very good thermometer, and you take your time, it will work just fine. So, you DO understand it, hence your question. The ‘trick’ is that the types I-IV can hide and be protected per se for quite some time at 88 F, so if you rush the tempering (say, trying to do it in 5-10 minutes), even though all the chocolate is at 88F and in theory no lower types should exist, in reality, they do exist. It takes time AND temperature to properly melt all the improper forms. Think of it this way maybe – it’s the same as having some water at 100 F, and then throwing in some chunks of ice. You can keep the water at 100C AND still have ice floating. It takes time for the ice to melt. It isn’t instant. Since the crystals can be present without you seeing them (as you can see the ice), it is often simply more convenient to melt everything to over 100 (or most of it) to ensure it is all melted. If you held it all at 88 F for 1/2-1 hour (purely an example there, I don’t know the actual time) that would also work. Does that help?

  13. Thank you for this excellent presentation.
    1. What is the best ration of liquid fat to sugar to effect a rapid refinning process?
    2. Does lecithin aid or inhibit rapid refinning?


    Tom Diehl

  14. I commend your illustrated presentation. Very, very nice!

    Question. I have a book that states that the 6 polymorphic forms of cocoa butter are gamma, alpha, form III, beta prime, beta, and form VI, consecutively. (Reference: Murano, P.S. 2003. Understanding Food Science and Technology. US: Thomson-Wadsworth.pp 272-274 )

    Are these forms similar with the types I – VI you had just presented?

    Or are they totally different. I am confused.


  15. They are exactly the same.

  16. This is by far the most effective way i’ve learned to temper chocolate. Thank you so much, John, for this and everything else here at Chocolate Alchemy!!!

    Doug mac

  17. My 10 year old son has a science project and he chose tempering chocolate. I would like to know if we can use some of the information on your site for his project.

    Thank you

  18. Carmen – Yes, absolutely – that is what the information is for.

  19. hi

    firstly thanks for the info, it helps me a lot with my project,, is there any possibilities after you get type V, and you continue the tempering (keep melting it and lets say recirculated in a pipe) will it destroyed the crystal that already formed?

    do you know any other book that I might use as reference?


  20. Claire, you can keep working with tempered chocolate without destroying the temper (type V). Actually, you may find you need to raise the heat a touch to avoid too much buildup of Type V as will show itself in thickening.

  21. O.O

    I -get- it now.

    I read through so many sites, and tried again and again and kept failing to get a decent temper..

    Thanks to this, (And the pictures, they made it so much clearer!) I think I may have just Tempered my first decent batch of chocolate.. Finger’s crossed, but looking good so far! ^-^

  22. John,

    I have a question regarding step #2, of your “AlChemist approach to Tempering”…..”Place the chocolate on a plastic wrap covered plate, cover the plate and put it in the oven or other semi-insulated place to slowing cool. (you are forming all the crystal forms here, with an advantage to the type V by cooling slowly).”

    Approximately what depth do you think you may be spreading the seed chocolate out on the plastic-wrap covered plate? 1/4″? 1/2″?

    I used more of a shallow bowl-like-plate today and I waited three hours and the seed chocolate wasn’t even solid yet. I’m thinking that I needed to put it on a regular plate and spread it out thinner. It was 76 F when I finally broke down and used it to seed the remainder of my choco. I’ll find out tomorrow morning if I have my first tempering success. Right now, I’m feeling a bit doubtful.

    You mentioned that it takes a few hours. I was hoping three hours would be a “few” in my case today.

    Also…will the seed chocolate be fairly hard once it’s set? You mentioned to chop it into finger nail sized pieces. So…I’m assuming it’s supposed to be hard. My today was still quite pliable. Good luck to me tomorrow morning.

    Cheers John,

  23. Dave,

    The thickness of your multi-crystal seed does not matter at all. At 76 F I am really surprised it did not set up, but it simply may have been too warm where you were. After an hour or 2 in the open, you can also safely refrigerate it to finish setting the seed.

    How did it end up coming out?

  24. Thanks a lot for your explanation, John!
    The good question was from Alfreda (on March 29th, 2009 at 4:05 am) and the clear answer from you. But I have one more question about this point: why after melting the crystals of all types we need to overcool the melt to form seeds of all types again? Сan not we just decrease temperature to level not lower than 28 oC? There won’t be any other seeds except V type. Could you explain this moment, please.

  25. Chi,

    Basically, you missed a critical line in my explanation.

    “Now, most of the time you would never be at 63 F – it would be a hard block”

    Meaning, you can take it to 28 C – in theory. In practice, it takes going a little bit lower. It’s a variant of the same answer I gave before. If you go to only 28 C, if you leave it there long enough, enough Type V seed will form. But if you rush it, you will only crystallize a little, which from the chocolate’s standpoint, means there are large areas without seed. Like having a handful of ice cubes in a swimming pool, as opposed to having 10,000 cubes that are present ‘everywhere’. If a seed is not present, you will form all the lower forms, and bloom.

    Make sense?

  26. Wonderful page with real answers. I have now successfully tempered chocolate several times without a single failure! :)

    One question though, if I heat up my kitchen to be above 81.1, but safe below 92.8, could I mold mithout tempering (using cocolate whith a temperature of let’s say 95)?

  27. Anders, Glad you like the page.

    No, that proposal you make won’t work. The room temperature has little to do with the actual tempering. If you do what you propose what will happen is that all 5 forms of crystals will form because when it eventually cools and hardens. The main reason that does not happen on the 2nd cool down is that you have introduces a huge amount of type V seed crystal and it way outweighs any small amount of 1-4 that form.

    That said, it might be possible as you say, but not practical in that you would need to hold the chocolate at say 88 F for a LONG time so that enough Type V can form. Remember trying to crystals in a lab? We are often talking days here. So I will back track a little and say in theory it sounds fine – but in practice you will find issues.

  28. You are (of course) right. I have tried to keep my molds at 86 F, stored in a wardrobe together with an old computer which produced just the right amount of heat… After approx 24h I took them out and put them in the freezer for 30 min. Sadly they were not perfect… I will stick with your method – it has never failed.

  29. Hi John,
    I’m a fan of chocolate and an electro-optics engineer as well. I love this page. I’ve been looking for a deeper insight into the tempering process and finally got some real answers from a chemist and rather than a pastry chef… :)
    I’ve heard many times before that light is not good for chocolate and it should be kept in dark places. Do you think, and here I get a little technical, there is an abrupt energy (frequency) threshold to the disintegration of the type V crystal? In other words, do you think all light damages tempered chocolate, or is the damage done by UV in particular?

  30. Claire, you can keep working with tempered chocolate without destroying the temper (type V). Actually, you may find you need to raise the heat a touch to avoid too much buildup of Type V as will show itself in thickening.

  31. (In 2nd method – Illustrated Tempering)
    Do I need to continuously gently stir it while initially heating up then cooling down and again warming up to 88F/31C?

  32. @Jay, the only reason to stir is to make sure you don’t have hot spots and it goes faster because you are distributing the warmed/cooled chocolate. Other than that, no, there is no magical reason to stir. Just the practical ones mentioned (distribution of heat).

  33. Thanks.
    Also, I want to know what do you mean by dark chocolate here(for the temperature thing)? What % above is considered dark?
    And do you have any idea about the cocoa content in ‘Morde’ dark chocolate slabs available in India?

  34. Hi John,
    Thank you for all the useful information. I have some doubts. In the end, I think that what we are basically doing is cooling from melt up to mostly type V crystal formation temperature, then “purging” other crystals by slight reheating and lastly falling back to the previous range. So basically, we are back were we started only that we have given advantage to type V crystals, so that the seeding effect of type V crystals takes over. Is that correct? Also, after we have done this, why not to just rapid cool? I mean, if we cool slowly, aren’t we giving more time to type V crystals to transition to the other forms by staying longer in temperatures were these forms are more stable? I just made my first batch and was successful in tempering even with the rapid cooling, so I was wondering.

  35. Leo,

    Yes and no. Crystallization as an event goes smoother when there is a scaffold (or seed) to work with. That is the purpose of the seed, be it freshly made or newly made. You are not back where you started because the other crystals don’t have an energetic reason to form. Sure, you may get small amounts here and there, but they are very small amounts.

    As for ‘why not rapid cool’. You can. If it works for you. It catch is you may find it does not always work. I too have used it on occasion, and often it works (when there is lot’s of Type V) but sometimes it does not and you get patchy bloom where you forced amorphous solidification before crystallization could occur.

  36. Best explanation of tempering that I have found! Question for you. I have an immersion circulator for sous vide cooking. By your theory, Could I just temper by putting it into the circulator at say 88-90 degrees and walking away for a few hours until everything well and truly melts? Nothing should ever overheat and once I think it has reached 88 degrees throughout, I could dry the bag, snip and corner and pour into a mold. Thoughts?

  37. Jenny,
    In theory if you are starting with solidified chocolate with all the seed forms in there, that should work just fine. If by chance you are starting with melted chocolate with no seed forms at all, I am just not sure. I would like to think you could, but it’s a case where theory and practice may not meet eye to eye. The key is giving it a few hours if it is going to work.

  38. I feel like Helen Keller in the scene where she finally understands what Annie Sullivan’s hand signing is about! Thank you so much for the detailed and clear explanation. I make spiced chocolate bark, and had been getting inconsistent results in terms of snap and appearance. I won’t embarrass myself by telling you everything I’d been doing wrong, except to say that I’d been doing everything wrong! I look forward to my next batch, when I can put what I learned into practice. Such big thanks to you!

  39. John, if Food Network were looking for a replacement for Good Eats’ Alton Brown, part chef, part scientist, you’d have my nomination.

    Going to try tempering again this morning. I’m very new at this. We live in Honduras, running a small home for children. To help fund the home, I’ve continued my career as a software developer. Unfortunately, my “science” has no application to chocolate making. Fortunately, Hondurans grows cocoa. We’re hoping to experiment our way and jerry rig enough equipment into something we could sell.

  40. This is great! Have you tried this process with the Premier Wonder grinder?

  41. I changed the end of the tempering process up a bit to reduce the mess. I found myself trying to navigate around the stone wheels too much and spending too much time monitoring temperature. So when the time comes to add the seeded chocolate, I remove the stone wheels and replace that piece with a simple auger (it came with my grinder). I add the seeded chocolate, mix it in and place a small desk lamp with a 60W incandescent bulb over the mix. At the right height, I stay right at 91F without having to turn on the machine much. I just turn it on to mix it up a little before removing any chocolate. This greatly relieves the stress of having to scrape chocolate off the wheels before it starts to set up. With the lamp I can just remove the chocolate from the wheels and add it back to the Santha with the auger attached.

  42. Yes, John, thanks. I have been reading and reading and had some understanding, but not clear until now. I would put this up in your notebook links, or somehow link to this from your notebook tempering page.. I did not find this until now when google sent me here.

  43. Like here;


  44. Thank you so much for this John. Reading through your article has been a real eye opener.

    Someone mentioned a sous vide immersion circulator above but so much water makes me nervous.
    Would it be possible to temper in a bain marie (electric) with a pid controller?
    If movement is not needed or only occasionally to get rid of hot spots, could this work by programming the pid controller to first heat to the melting temperature, then drop to 29 degrees and heat up again to 32 degrees?

  45. This explanation is brilliant, I understood how it did work, without completely picture the crystallization process. It was a bit like watching a movie without the middle part. So thank you for your hard work on the subject. And thanks for the whole blog, it did help me a lot during those last two years.

    Bravo Alchemist.

  46. Hey.
    Great article and explanation on how if all happens, I used to study chemistry, and am now a chef. I have two questions that i just keep batteling with, I assume the crystals 2-4 can’t reconstruct when once you deconstructed them, but since they are formless do they evaporate or just? That isn’t the big question, but if you temper correctly and cool down your chocolate, will you be able to just heat it and cool it as you like, and maintain only the crystal V? Assuming you dont exend the melting point of this crystal?

  47. I answer a version of that here. Ask the Alchemist 153

  48. very informative.

    You said the temperature ranges change for different percentages of chocolates.

    Would you have a graph or tBle showing the temperatures at which type V crystals melt for different chocolates?

    Kind regards and many thanks


  49. While it is true the temperature changes with composition, there are not practical graphs you can produce that are anything more that ‘for demonstration’ purposes. The main reason is that each bean is different, each butter is different and each sugar is different. In short there are too many variable. Very generally speaking, the lower the percentage of cocoa butter, the lower you have to temper. I’ll devote an article to this at some point.

  50. Hello and thank you for this article! I am working with raw cocoa butter and experimenting with techniques to properly temper and mold and this helps a lot. My question is in regards to adding various other ingredients, at what point would you recommend introducing various flavored powders to still maintain temper and mold ability? Would really appreciate your insights.

  51. If you are using powders, the earlier the better. Large particle sizes disrupt tempering. It’s why unrefined chocolate, where the sugar is still granular and gritty is so hard to temper. That said, the longer you refine the powders, the more the flavors have of going away. I personally figure on about 6 hours, and go more or less based on the results.

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